Reviewing Undercurrents, Trends, and Insights in the 2023 Nigerian Off-Cycle Elections
A CDD Post-Election Report

Nigerians went to the polls for the third and final set of elections in 2023, with citizens in Bayelsa, Imo and Kogi electing state governors. These polls were conducted in the wake of contentious general elections that produced a new president, national legislators, and 28 state governors. Those elections unveiled different factors that played a major role in determining the outcome, with issues ranging from identity to institutions and the threat of insecurity. These latest off-cycle elections in the three states have again demonstrated the challenge of surmounting such divisive factors. This report unpacks major themes identified by analysts and observers in the field, with a focus on incumbency and individuals, identity, insecurity, institutions, inducement, information disorder, and impunity. It situates the result in the wider narrative of reviewing earlier elections and comparing findings, especially around voter turnout. Finally, it also looks at general findings and discussions worth taking place ahead of future off-cycle elections.

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